- Key Roman HistoryCardo Romanus historia

The following information gives us the key events in Roman History both B.C. and A.D.


753Foundation of Rome - Romulus becomes King
600-510Etruscan Kings rule Rome
510The establishment of the Republic begins with expulsion of Tarquin
451Foundation of Roman law established with Code of Twelve Tables
390Rome sacked by the Gauls
354Treaty with the Samnites
343-341Samnite war (1st) - Rome occupies Nothern Campania
340-338Latin war
327-304Samnite war (2nd) - Rome influences Southern Italy
321Truce with Samnites after defeat at Caudine Forks
312Appian Way is built - 1st Roman Road
298-290Samnite war (3rd) - Rome rules Southern Italy
282-272Rome at war with Tarentum and Epirus
270Whole of the peninsula now under Roman rule
264-241Punic war (1st) - Rome defends Greek cities in Sicily
241Rome defeats Carthage
218-201Punic war (2nd) - against Hannibal
216Rome defeated at Cannae
214-205Macedonian war (1st) - against Philip V
202Scipio defeats Hannibal at Zama
201Rome controls Western Mediterranean after peace with Carthage
200-196Macedonian war (2nd) - proclamation of freedom of Greece
172-168Macedonian war (3rd) - Perseus defeated at Pydna
148Macedonia becomes a province of Rome
146Both Carthage and Corinth destroyed
133Tiberius Gracchus becomes tribune
123-122Gaius Gracchus implements both political and economic reforms
121Gaius is killed
111-105Marius and Sulla in war against Jugurtha of Numidia
91-89Rome and allies in Social war
89-85Rome at war with Mithridates VI of Pontus
83-82Marius and Sulla in civil war and Sulla captures Rome
81-79Sulla is now dictator and restores constitution
78Sulla dies
77-72Pompey at war with Sertorius in Spain
73-71Spartacus leads famous slave revolt
70Pompey and Crassus joint consuls - restoration of tribunes
67War with Mithridates at an end - Pompey controls pirates
63Catiline conspiracy suppressed by Cicero - Octavian born
60First Triumvirate formed (Caesar, Pompey, Crassus)
58-51Caesar conquers Gaul
53Battle of Carrhae - Rome beaten by Parthians - Crassus killed
49Caesar crosses Rubicon - civil war with Pompey started
48Pompey loses to Caesar - Caesar becomes dictator - Pompey murdered in Egypt
44Caesar is assassinated - Octavian adopts name of Caesar
43Second Triumvirate formed - (Octavian, Antony, Lepidus)
42Cassius and Brutus die (suicide) in Battle of Philippi - Julius Caesar deified - Tiberius born
40Romans name Herod as King of Judea
38Octavian marries Livia
33Relations between Octavian and Antony deteriorate fast
31Battle of Actium - Antony and Cleopatra defeated at sea by Octavian
30Octavian has tribunition power conferred on him for life - Suicide of Antony and Cleopatra
29Octavian returns to Rome to celebrate his triumph
27Power returned to Senate by Octavian and receives name Augustus
25Augustus’s daughter Julia marries Marcellus
23Augustus seriously ill - Marcellus dies
21Agrippa marries Julia
12Augustus is now Pontifex Maximus - head of state religion - Agrippa dies
11Tiberius marries Julia


2Augustus is now ‘Father of his Country’ (Pater Patriae) - Julia banished to Pandateria
4Augustus adopts Tiberius as heir who in turn must adopt Germanicus
6Judea becomes a Roman province - post of Prefect of the Night Watch established
9Lex Papia Poppaea passed - Varus loses 3 legions in Germany and commits suicide
14Death of Augustus
14-37Tiberius is new Emperor
19Germanicus dies mysteriously and is buried in Antioch
37-41Gaius (Caligula (meaning ‘Little Boots’)) is Emperor. He is murdered in 41
41-54Claudius proclaimed as Emperor and reluctantly accepts - poisoned in 54
54-68Nero made Emperor - great fire of 64 when Nero supposedly, but did not, fiddle
68-69The year of the four Emperors : Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian
69-79Vespasian starts the building of the Colosseum
79-81Titus is new Emperor - Vesuvius erupts and Pompeii and Herculaneum are destroyed in 79
81-96Domitian is new Emperor
96-98Domitian assassinated and Nerva is new Emperor
98-117Trajan is new Emperor - conqueror of Datian and Parthian empire
117-138Hadrian, traveller, is new Emperor
122Hadrian starts building of Hadrian’s Wall between the River Solway and River Tyne
138-161Antoninus Pius is new Emperor
141-143Antonine Wall built between Forth and Clyde
161-180Marcus Aurelius is new Emperor - his son, Commodus, shares this between 177-180
180-192Commodus proclaimed new Emperor
193-211Septimius Severus new Emperor - dies in Britain
211-217Caracalla new Emperor but rules criminally
284-305Maximian and Diocletian are joint rulers and empire divided into 12 dioceses
312Constantine wins Rome with victory at Milvian Bridge
313Christian persecution ends with Edict of Milan
324Constantine becomes sole Emperor
325Christianity becomes religion of the Empire
330Byzantium seat of government and is renamed Constantinople after Constantine
337Constantine dies
410Alaric and Goths capture and destroy Rome